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Museums Evolution 

A History of Museums 

4 th Year Architecture, 2013 
Faculty of Engineering Shoubra 
Benha University 

Cover: National Gallery in London vs Guggenheim museum in Bilbao, adopted from: 





Research Team: 

19th Century Museums & before 

AbdelWahab Ahmed AbdelWahab 

Husien Riad Ahmed Azab 

Khaled Lotfy Ibrahem 

Mohamed Adel Hassan 

Mohamed AbdelHameed ElKady 

Mahmoud Mohamed Magdy Mahmoud Hegazy 

Osama Ashraf Ahmed 

20th Century Museums & Byeond 

Afnan Subhi AbdelRahman Mohamed 
Asmaa Mohmed Mohmed Elbakry 
Aya Fathy Yahia 

Aya Magdy Bahaa Elden Mohamed 
Eman AbdelRahman Mohamed 
Esraa AbdElAleem Hassan 
Esraa Fergany Abass 
Shaimaa Ahmed Baiomy 

Supervisor: Prof. Wagih Fawzi Youssef 

Table of Contents 

Background 5 

A History Of Museums 6 

Cabinet of curiosities 7 

19th Century Museums & before 10 

the Louvre, Paris 10 

Dulwich Art Gallery, London 15 

Peale Museum, Baltimore 18 

the British Museum, London 20 

National Gallery, London 24 

Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge 29 

thorvaldsens museum, Copenhagen, Denmark 34 

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford 37 

Wadsworth Atheneum, Connecticut, USA 43 

National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh 47 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London 51 

University Museum, Oxford 56 

American Museum of Natural History, New York 60 

State Historical Museum, Moscow, Russia 61 

The Egyptian Museum, Cairo 62 

Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo 67 

20th Century Museums & Byeond 71 

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, USA 73 

Kimbell Art Museum, Texas, USA 85 

San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California, USA 93 

Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain 104 

MAXXI Museum, Rome, Italy 112 

Royal Ontario Museum, Ontario, Canada 120 

Sogn & Fjordane Art Museum, Forde, Norway 128 

Kimbell Art Museum Expansion, Texas, USA 134 

Conclusion 141 

References 142 


Museums are big business, attracting billions of tourist dollars, advancing science, and 
educating and amusing more than 850 million people annually. 

Their role is not well-understood or well-publicized. And then there's also the "boring" 

Night At The Museum (a 2006 movie about a watchman who discovers museum exhibits 
come to life at night) honed in on the stereotype of museums as boring ... but filled 
with really cool stuff. 

in our research, we are trying to explore what others have done and will be doing to 
report on the direction museum architecture is taking. 

we tried to study a diverse types of museums, archaeology, art, natural history, away 
from museums types, we also tried not to foucs on a certain region but to study 
museums from Europe, North America, and North Africa. 

When the term museum was first used in the renaissance in reference to private 
collections, it evoked a different experience from what we know now. In one of the 
museum's earliest forms, the Cabinet of Curiosities, natural and art objects were all 
mixed up together on the walls and ceilings, cupboards and drawers of one or two 
rooms. Their purpose was to surprise and delight, viewers had to find the special 
objects that attracted them and then make their own connections. 

Duty began to be more important with the creation of the public museum, museums 
increasingly divorced art from a lived experience and elevated it to the status of a 
secular religion, museums became a sacred spaces. 

19th century museums imitated the places for which some of the art had been made: 
skylit galleries whose proportions, colors and moldings provided a complementary 
framework for the art on exhibition. 

By the early 20th century, new museums were replacing these architecturally 
articulated rooms with open space, often illuminated only by artificial light. Now the 
contemporary art is no more a secular religion, the idea of sacred museum space is 

Now we can see the Museum as Entertainment, exhibits is just one of several cultural 
attractions offered by the museum. Shopping, eating, performances, now compete 
with the preservation and exhibition of art as museum mandates 

A History Of Museums 

The word museum has classical origins, mouseion "seat of the Muses" a place of contemplation. 
The word museum was revived in 15th-century Europe to describe the collection of Lorenzo 
de' Medici in Florence, but the term conveyed the concept of comprehensiveness rather 
than denoting a building. 

By the 17th century museum was being used in Europe to describe collections of curiosities. 
Ole Worm's collection in Copenhagen was so called. 

in England visitors to John Tradescant ' s collection 
in Lambeth (now a London borough) called the 
array there a museum; the catalogue of this 
collection, published in 1656, was titled Musaeum 
Tradescantianum. In 1677 the collection, having 
become the property of Elias Ashmole, was 
transferred to the University of Oxford. 

A building was constructed to receive it, and this, 
soon after being opened to the public in 1683, 
became known as the Ashmolean Museum. 


Although there is some ambivalence in the use of museum in the legislation, drafted in 1753, 
founding the British Museum, nevertheless the idea of an institution called a museum and 
established to preserve and display a collection to the public was well established in the 18th 
century. Indeed, Denis Diderot outlined a detailed scheme for a national museum for France 
in the ninth volume of his Encyclopedie, published in 1765. 

Use of the word museum during the 19th and most of the 20th century denoted a building 
housing cultural material to which the public had access. Later, as museums continued to 
respond to the societies that created them, the emphasis on the building itself became less 
dominant. Open-air museums, comprising a series of buildings preserved as objects, and 
ecomuseums, involving the interpretation of all aspects of an outdoor environment, provide 
examples of this. In addition, so-called virtual museums exist in electronic form on the 
Internet. Although virtual museums provide interesting opportunities for and bring certain 
benefits to existing museums, they remain dependent upon the collection, preservation, 
and interpretation of material things by the real museum. 

Cabinet of curiosities 

rooms whose walls and ceilings, cupboards and drawers, housed private collections that 
included a bizarre spectrum of natural curiosities as well as art objects. 

Ole Worm's cabinet of curiosities, "Museum Wormianum", 1655. 
Image source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/wiki/File:RitrattoMuseoFerranteImperato.jpg 

The bizarre was collected together with sober specimens with no real order or organization. 

Cabinet Ferrante Imperato (Naples 1599). 
Image source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/wiki/File:Musei_Wormiani_Historia.jpj 


early in the 19th century, the homes and studios of artists such as Peter Paul Rubens, one of 
the great artist collectors of the Baroque period, were early models for the museum. 

Rubens Self-portrait 
Image source: 

Rubenshuis (Rubens House) interior I 
Images source: 

as new collections were put together in the 19th & 20th centuries, private individuals also 
began to commission architecture for them. 

new collectors, concerned with enjoyment and study and the advancement of knowledge. 

schoolchildren sketch a zoologist in 1938. stuffed koala bear and baby under the guidance of a museum. 
Image source: 

museum then built for the worship of art replaced churches built for the worship of God. 

dome and colonnade in 1803 for a museum project by J.N.L. Durand established a typology 
for the exterior, gallery enfilades for the interior 

museums banned all architectural articulation for fear that eye might stray from art; also 
frequently banned was natural light 


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Jean-Nicolas-Louis Duran: Design for a Museum: Floorplan and Section, aus: J.N.L. Durand Precis des lecons 

d 'architecture, Bd. 2, Paris 1803 

19th Century Museums & before 

the Louvre, Paris (1793) 

the world's first national collection. 

one of the largest art museums and palaces in the world. Located in Paris, France, it covers 
more than 40 acres on the north bank of the River Seine. The museum has about 275,000 
works of art, including about 5,000 paintings. 

Louvre museum from "La Seine" 


the Louvre, Paris (1793) 

Philippe Auguste built the first Louvre as a Gothic fort about 1200. It was a sizable arsenal 
comprising a moated quadrilateral with round bastions at each corner, and at the center 
of the north and west walls. Defensive towers flanked narrow gates in the south and east 
walls. At the center of the complex stood the massive keep, the Grosse Tour. Two inner 
buildings abutted the outer walls on the west and south sides. 

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Louvre during Philippe Auguste 12C 

Francois I decided to take up residence in Paris. Francois I, who had been a prisoner of war 
in Italy, decided to build a palace more splendid than the great palaces of Italy. 

Louvre Palace 


the Louvre, Paris (1793) 

Over the years, French rulers pursued enriching the castle with antiques and masterpieces 
until it became about 2500 piece in 1715. but they kept it for themselves in Royal court, some 
of them made the the castle their permenant residence such as "Francois II", "charle IX" and 
"henry III" and each of them modified the building according to their whims neglecting the 
antiques and masterpieces 

louvre 1699 
Source: http://robinsonlibraryxom/finearts/visual/museums/louvre.htm 

In 1791, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre and the Tuileries together "will be 
a national palace to house the king and for gathering together all the monuments of the 
sciences and the arts." 

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the Louvre, Paris (1793) 

Gallery at the Louvre, 1793, the year it opened to the public. 
Source: http://grupaok.tumb 

The Museum Central des Arts opened its doors on August 10, 1793. Under the authority of 
the Minister of the Interior, its first governors were the painters Hubert Robert, Fragonard 
and Vincent, the sculptor Pajou, and the architect de Wailly. Admission was free, with artists 
given priority over the general public, who were admitted on weekends only. The works, 
mostly paintings from the collections of the French royal family and aristocrats who had 
fled abroad, were displayed in the Salon Carree and the Grande Galerie. 


the Louvre, Paris (1793) 

interior, using natural and artificial light 

interior, using natural and artificial light 


Dulwich Art Gallery, London (1811 - 14) 

the first independent purpose-built picture gallery created in the British Isles, Built with a 
limited budget bequeathed by sir Francis Bourgeois; attached to one side is his mausoleum. 

Dulwich Picture Gallery. 
Image source:^ 

sir Francis Bourgeois mausoleum. Photo by Julian 


Image source: 

the mausoleum from the south, decorated with urns, 

sarcophagi and sharm doors. 
Source: Architects' Journal, 1985, April 24, p.44 - 65 


Dulwich Art Gallery, London (1811 - 14) 






Dulwich Picture Gallery plan. 
Source: Architects' Journal, 1985, April 24, p.44 - 65 

a series of interlinked rooms lit by natural light through overhead skylights has been the 
primary influence on art gallery design ever since. John Soane designed the sky lights to 
illuminate the paintings indirectly 

Dulwich Picture Gallery skylight lights ceiling 


Dulwich Art Gallery, London (1811 - 14) 

An interior view of the permanent collection of old master paintings in Dulwich Picture Gallery. 

Image source: 

"Soane has taught us how to display paintings" 

Philip Johnson 

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An interior view in Dulwich Picture 

Image source: 

inside the mausoleum, 
source: Architects' Journal, 1985, April 24, p.44 - 65 


Peale Museum, Baltimore (1813 - 14) 

Peale Museum 

the first structure in the United States expressly intended as a museum. Having no model for 
the design on a public museum, long adapted the standard five bay house plan, enlarging the 
center into a tripartite pavilion. 

The central entrance employed a latrobean motif, a screen of two doric columns set before 
a recessed entrance hall 

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Baltimore's Peale Museum 


Peale Museum, Baltimore (1813 - 14) 

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Baltimore's Peale Museum, September 1936 second story front room 

The Peale Museum, the Municipal Museum of Baltimore, was a collection of paintings and 
natural history created by Charles Willson Peale; first building in western hemisphere with 
be built as a museum 

Interior of Front Room in Peale's Museum, 1822 


the British Museum, London (1823 - 46) 

British Museum entrance, 

[R] Sir Robert Smirke's west wing under construction (July 1828). 
source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/wiki/File:P8282318.l.JPG 

The core of today's building, the four main wings of the British Museum, was designed in the 
nineteenth century. Other important architectural developments include the round Reading 
Room with its domed ceiling and the Norman Foster designed Great Court which opened in 

Quadrangle building 

The core of today's building was designed by the architect Sir Robert Smirke (1780-1867) in 
1823. It was a quadrangle with four wings: the north, east, south and west wings. 

The monumental South entrance, with its stairs, colonnade and pediment, was intended to 
reflect the wondrous objects housed inside. 


the British Museum, London (1823 - 46) 

Proposed British Museum Extension, 1906. 

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Ground floor plan, 


the British Museum, London (1823 - 46) 

Smirke designed the building in the Greek Revival style, which emulated classical Greek 
architecture. Greek features on the building include the columns and pediment at the South 

entrance columns, 

The building was completed in 1852. It included galleries for classical sculpture and Assyrian 
antiquities as well as residences for staff 







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Natural and Artificial lighting, 


the British Museum, London (1823 - 46) 

Artificial light. 

source: [L]: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/wiki/File:Egyptian_Gallery.JPG 

[R]: wiki/File:BM,_GMR_-_RM21,_Mausoleum_of_Halikarnassos.JPG 

Natural light, 

Artificial light, 


National Gallery, London (1833 - 8) 

The National Gallery is an art museum on Trafalgar Square, London. Founded in 1824, it 
houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 

Trafalgar Square, London - Jun 2009 
Image adopted from:,_London_2_- Jun_2009.jpg 

The National Gallery was not formed by nationalising an existing royal or princely art 
collection. It came into being when the British government bought 38 paintings from the 
heirs of John Julius Angerstein, an insurance broker and patron of the arts, in 1824. 

It used to be claimed that this was one of the few national galleries that had all its works on 
permanent exhibition. 

The National Gallery opened to the public on 10 May 1824, housed in Angerstein's former 
townhouse on No. 100 Pall Mall, it was then frequently overcrowded and hot and its diminutive 
size in comparison with the Louvre in Paris was the cause of national embarrassment. 

The paintings displayed in Angerstein's house. 
Image source: 


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100 Pall Mall, the home of the National 

Gallery from 1824 to 1834. 

Image Source: 

National Gallery, London (1833 - 8) 

National Gallery, london, main facade. 
Image source: 

There was a lot of public criticism of the National Gallery's building and in 1869 after much 
discussion, it was decided that the existing building should remain, and a new wing should 
be added. This was completed in 1876, and added seven new exhibition rooms at the east 
end, including the impressive dome. 

the current building is notable for it's Greek style, the extended fagade here owes something 
to Chambers's Somerest House. 

The main vertical axis, the intended circulation spine of the gallery gives guidance as to the 
overall structure of the layout 


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Plans before expansion. Areas shaded in pink were used by the Royal Academy until 1868. © The British Library. 
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National Gallery, London (1833 - 8) 

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The National Gallery, 1910. 
Image source: 

National Gallery, London 1861. 

Credit: RIBA Library Photographs Collection. Ref 

No: RIBA13238 

Image Source: 

The National Gallery 1886, Interior of Room 32. 
Image source: 


National Gallery, London (1833 - 8) 

Following are some images showing the use of natural and artificial indirect light. 

The National Gallery, Interior of Barry Room. 
Image source: 

Image source: National Gallery virtual tour 


National Gallery, London (1833 - 8) 

Image source: National Gallery virtual tour 

Image source: National Gallery virtual tour 


Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (1837 - 47) 

The FitzWilliam is the Cambridge University museum. 

It was founded in 1816 when Richard, VII Viscount FitzWilliam of Merrion bequested his own 
collection of art and library to the Cambridge University and £100000 to build this museum. 

It was described by the Standing Commission on Museums & Galleries in 1968 as "one of the 
greatest art collections of the nation and a monument of the first importance". 

The building was designed by English architect George Basevi who was a pupil of the Sir John 
Soane, an English architect who was specialised in the Neo-classical style and famous for 
designing the Dulwich Picture Gallery 

Fitzwilliam Museum main facade. 
Image source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/wiki/File:FitzwilliamMuseum.jpj 

u one of the most telling examples in the country of the turn away from the purity of neo- 
Greek towards a Victorian Baroque which took place in the thirties and forties." 

Nikolaus Pevsner 


Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (1837 - 47) 

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Corinthian Octastyle Portico: Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. Illustration for Knight's Pictorial 

Gallery of Arts (London Printing and Publishing, c I860). 

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Floor plan of the Fitzwilliam Museum, George Basevi. 
Image source: 


Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (1837 - 47) 

The main entrance to the museum is a fine example of the Neo-Classical style of architecture. 

Inspired by the buildings of the Ancient Grece and Rome. Basevi designed a 'temple' of art to 
house the collections of Viscount Fitzwilliam. 



Part of the grand entrance to the museum 
Image source: 

Following the Entrance hall, still functions as a Victorian sculpture gallery showcasing a 
range of neo-classical statuary, including the massive marble caryatids flanking the doorways 
into Gallery 3. 

A series of portrait busts commemorate some of the key personalities associated with the 
museum collection, whilst the niches on the upper walls house plaster copies of Greek and 
Roman masterpieces. 


Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (1837 - 47) 

Entrance hall 1875 
Image source: 

Entrance hall 
Image source: 


Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (1837 - 47) 

Inside the museum. 
Image source: 

Inside the museum. 
Image source: 


thorvaldsens museum, Copenhagen, Denmark (1839 - 48) 

Greek Revival in spirit, the bold severity of its astylar forms recalls - in some extent - 
Egyptian architecture, especially in the internal courtyards. The barrel vaulted ceilings of 
the galleries are decorated in the pompeian style. 


Thorvaldsen's Museum 


thorvaldsens museum, Copenhagen, Denmark (1839 - 48) 

The building is strongly inspired by antique Greek architecture and built around an inner 
courtyard where the artist is buried. It is particularly noteworthy for its unique use of colors 
both inside and outside. Every room in the museum has a unique ceiling decoration in the 
grotesque style. 

The outside is adorned with a frieze depicting Thorvaldsen's homecoming from Rome in 
1838 made by Jorgen Sonne. 

Thorvaldsens Museum, the Ground Floor Plan, 15.06.1839 


thorvaldsens museum, Copenhagen, Denmark (1839 - 48) 

The Museum opened on September 18, 1848. It houses nearly all of the sculptor Bertel 
Thorvaldsen's original models for the sculptures he created for numerous European 

interior, using natural light 

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Natural lighting/ Display 

Natural lighting/ Display 


Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (1841 - 5) 

The oldest public museum in Britain, and the first purpose-built public museum in the world. 

Opened 1683 to house the cabinet of curiosities Elias Ashmole. 

The collection began modestly in the 1620s, The present Ashmolean was created in 1908 by 

combining two ancient Oxford institutions: the University Art Collection and the original 

Ashmolean Museum. 

The Museum of the History of Science (or "Old Ashmolean") is a Grade I listed building (ref. 

1485/149 and 149A). It was built in Headington stone by the University in 1679-83, and 

patched with Clipsham stone in 1960. It was the first museum in the world to open its doors 

to the public. 

Ashmolean Museum, opened in 1683. 

Now Museum of the History of Science. 


Engraving of the East Front of the Museum by 

Michael Burghers, 1685. 


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Old Ashmolean Facade 



Old Ashmolean Facade 




Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (1841 - 5) 

Antiquarian print of the former Ashmolean Museum, now the History of Science Museum. Oxford, UK 

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Antiquarian print of the former Ashmolean Museum, now the History of Science Museum. Oxford, UK 


Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (1841 - 5) 

The above picture shows some of the exhibits in the lower room of the Museum in the mid-1840s. 

Lithograph of the Special lecture given by William Buckland in the Old Ashmolean 

Museum, 15th February, 1823 


Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (1841 - 5) 

the modern languages faculty of the university, standing on the corner of Beaumont Street 
and St Giles' Street. This building dates from 1845-48 and was also designed by Charles 
Cocerell, using the Ionic order of Greek architecture 

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Ashmolean Museum and Taylorian Institute, Oxford: panoramic view. Wood engraving by CD. Laing after 

C.R. Cockerell. 

Credit: The builder October, 1846 




Ashmolean Museum and Taylorian Institute plan. 

Credit: The builder October, 1846 



Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (1841 - 5) 

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Source: http://www.timetravel-britainxom/articles/museums/ashmolean.shtml 

The present building dates from 1841-45. It was designed by Charles Cockerell in a classical 
style and stands on Beaumont Street. 

Present ashmolean 



Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology, 

Beaumont Street, Oxford. 1845 



Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (1841 - 5) 

Display and lighting were very primitive; using daylight lighting via facade vertical windows 
and by just spreading the artifacts all over the area of the building. 

The Minoan Room at the Ashmolean Museum, 1910-1920. 

Interior - using natural light. 


Wadsworth Atheneum, Connecticut, USA (1842- 44) 

Gothic Revival Wadsworth building of 1844, introduced the fortress as a model, designed by 
the eminent architects Ithiel Town and Alexander Jackson Davis. It originally housed the art 

Wadsworth Atheneum. 
Image source: 

Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut. 

Credit: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division 

Image source: 


Wadsworth Atheneum, Connecticut, USA (1842- 44) 

Wadsworth Atheneum. Lithograph, c. 1842-48. 
Image source: 


Wadsworth Atheneum, Connecticut, USA (1842- 44) 

Inside Wadsworth Atheneum. 

Credit: Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art 2011 annual report. 

Image source: 



Inside Wadsworth Atheneum. using natural & artificial lighting. 
Image source: 


Wadsworth Atheneum, Connecticut, USA (1842- 44) 

The Atrium at the Wadsworth Museum of Art. using natural & 

artificial lighting. 

Image source: 

Inside Wadsworth Atheneum. using artificial lighting. 
Image source [L]: 
Image source [R]: 


National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh (1850 - 4) 

National Gallery of Scotland 

The National Gallery of Scotland, by William Henry Playfair (1790-1857). Completed 1854. 
The Mound, Edinburgh. This lies just to the south of the Royal Scottish Academy. Originally 
built to accommodate both the National Gallery and the Royal Scottish Academy 

The Royal Scottish Academy Building and the Scottish National Gallery 


National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh (1850 - 4) 

National Gallery of Scotland, The Mound, Edinburgh 

Credit: RIBA Library Photographs Collection. Ref No: RIBA60287 

Image Source: 

For the Royal Scottish Academy building, Playfair had chosen the Doric order, and designed 
a programme of sculptural decoration to reflect its inhabitant's interest in ornament and 
design. For scenic effect, he made a deliberate contrast in his designs for the National Gallery 
building and opted for the graceful Ionic order. His two classical temples to the arts achieved 
a picturesque harmony with the dramatic backdrop of Edinburgh Castle. 

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National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh (1850 - 4) 

National Gallery of Scotland, The Mound, Edinburgh: Ground Plan 

it has double porticos to the north and south as well as a central portico on each flank, "all 
very austere and abstract with unfluted orders, though relieved (or compromised) by the 
crowning balustrade" 

National Gallery of Scotland, The Mound, Edinburgh: aerial view 


National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh (1850 - 4) 

Interior of the National Gallery of Scotland, c.1867-77 

interior, using natural and artificial light 


Victoria and Albert Museum, London 1851 

Named after Prince Albert and Queen Victoria, its origins in the Great Exhibition of 1851, 
with which Henry Cole, the museum's first director, was involved in planning. 

Construction took place between 1899 to 1909. Stylistically it is a strange hybrid, although 
much of the detail belongs to the Renaissance there are medieval influences at work. 

The main facade, built from red brick and Portland stone, stretches 220 m along Cromwell 
Gardens and was designed by Aston Webb after winning a competition in 1891 to extend the 

The interior makes much use of marble in the entrance hall and flanking staircases, although 
the galleries as originally designed were white with restrained classical detail and mouldings, 
very much in contrast to the elaborate decoration of the Victorian galleries, although much 
of this decoration was removed in the early 20th century 

Victoria and Albert Museum, London. 
Image source: 

Design for the Victoria and Albert Museum: 
detail of the central portion of the main front to 

Cromwell Well. 

Credit: RIBA Library Photographs Collection. Ref 

No: RIBA13238 

Image source: 


Victoria and Albert Museum, London 1851 

South Kensington Victoria Albert Museum Plan. 
Image source: 

The main entrance consisting of a series of shallow arches supported by slender columns 
and niches with twin doors separated by pier is Roma Gothic Revival Wadsworth building 
of 1844, designed by the eminent architects Ithiel Town and Alexander Jackson Davis. It 
originally housed the art gallery Romanesque in form but Classical in detail 

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Shallow Arches. 
Image source: 

Main entrance interior. 
Image source: 


Victoria and Albert Museum, London 1851 

Exterior view. 
Image source: 

The official opening by Queen Victoria was on 22 June 1857. In the following year, late night 
openings were introduced, made possible by the use of gas lighting. 

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gas light bulbs. 
Image source: 


Victoria and Albert Museum, London 1851 

Photograph of RAF staff using the South Court as a canteen 

during the World War 2, 1940s. V&A Archive, MA/32/264, neg. A54 

Source: wartime.pdf 

The role of the Museum buildings themselves was forced to change. Between 1941 and 1944 
galleries were used as a school for child-evacuees from Gibraltar. The South Court became a 
canteen for both the RAF and later for Bomb Damage Repair Squads despite official anxiety 
about potential damage to the rooms and their remaining contents. 

Display and Lighting (Sculpture Hall) 


Victoria and Albert Museum, London 1851 


Victoria and Albert Museum. Interior view (South Court) showing display 

The Cast Courts are domainated by the two- 
part cast of Trajan's Column 


University Museum, Oxford (1854 - 60) 

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Oxford University Museum of Natural History main facade. 
Image source: http://www.artdailyorg/index.asp?int_sec=2&int_new=38123#.UNoJWeRtjLs 

The building of the Oxford Museum was significant in the development of nineteenth century 
architecture, the history of Oxford University, and in the study of science in England. The 
result is as spectacular today as when it was first opened in 1860. 

Oxford University Museum. 

Credit: RIBA Library Photographs Collection. Ref No: RIBA16796 

Image source: Building News, vol. 5, 1859 Sept. 9, p. 819 


University Museum, Oxford (1854 - 60) 

The Museum building is a striking example of Victorian neo-Gothic architecture. Its style 
was strongly influenced by the ideas of John Ruskin, who believed that architecture should 
be shaped by the energies of the natural world. 

Oxford University Museum. Photograph 1977 by George P. Landow 
Image Source: 

Showed how Gothic Revival could be seriously employed for public buildings, the entrance 
block with its steep roof and central tower is reminiscent of Flemish town halls and its subtly 
asymmetrical window arrangement reflect the different sizes of the ground floor rooms. 

Oxford University Museum, Parks Road, Oxford, seen from the south-west. 

Credit: RIBA Library Photographs Collection. Ref No: RIBA42545 


University Museum, Oxford (1854 - 60) 

The carving around the doors to the Museum remain 


Image source: 

The cat window (1st floor further left), other windows 

carving remain unfinished. 

Image source: 

Internally there is a quadrangle with a steep glass roof supported by pointed iron arches, the 
spandrels of which are filled with delicate wrought iron foilage. 

Oxford University Museum from inside. 
Image source: 


University Museum, Oxford (1854 - 60) 

The building is one of the finest examples of the Victorian Gothic style of architecture, 
exhibiting a wealth of naturalist carving; the huge glass roof over the central museum court 
is supported by cast iron columns, ornamented with wrought ironwork in the spandrels 
representing branches of species including sycamore, walnut and palm. 

The cast iron columns supporting the glass 

roof in the court. 

Image source: 

Oxford University Museum from inside. 
Image source: 

Oxford University Museum plan. 
Image source: 


American Museum of Natural History, New York (1869) 



State Historical Museum, Moscow, Russia (1875) 

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MOSCOU — Musee historique 

Main Building of State Historical Museum 


The Egyptian Museum, Cairo (1898 - 1902) 

cairo museum 

The architect of the Egyptian Museum, Marcel Dourgnon designed the exterior of the 
Egyptian Museum to reflect the Pharaonic, Greco-Roman, Coptic and Islamic phases of 
Egyptian history 




The Egyptian Museum, Cairo (1898 - 1902) 

Marcel Dourgnon Museum of Egyptian Antiquities in Cairo , watercolor drawing of the main facade 



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Ground floor plan 


The Egyptian Museum, Cairo (1898 - 1902) 

Main Entrance 

In imitation of the ancient temples, the architect crafted the museum's entrance as a 
Pharaonic period pylon - a square fagade with large gates; above the exterior doorways are 
Greek inscriptions and Greco-Roman style statues; the two pillars flanking the entrance, as 
well as the cornice above them, were inspired by Coptic art and the European traditions of 
Christianity; finally the large dome attached to the roof, 34 metres in height, was made in 
the Islamic style. 


The Egyptian Museum, Cairo (1898 - 1902) 

Main Entrance 





The Egyptian Museum, Cairo (1898 - 1902) 

Natural light 
The Egyptian Museum. Interior of main hall, looking down from first floor 

inside the Egyptian museum 



using artificial light 


Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo (1899 - 1903) 

Museum of Arab Art & Library Khedivial, Cairo 1903. 

Credit: Memory of Modern Egypt. 

Image source: 

The building was designed by Alfonso Manescalo, and was completed in 1902 in Neo-Mamluk 

Museum of Islamic Art. Exterior facade. 
Image source: 


Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo (1899 - 1903) 

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Museum of Islamic Art plan. 

Credit: Memory of Modern Egypt. 

Image source: 

The entrance on Port Said Street features a very luxurious facade, rich with decorations and 
recesses inspired by Islamic architecture in Egypt from various periods. 

Museum of Islamic Art. Main Entrance. 
Image source: 

Museum of Islamic Art. Main Entrance. 
Image source: 


Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo (1899 - 1903) 

Displaying using natural lighting, ca (1930 - 1950) 

Credit: Memory of Modern Egypt. 
Images source: 


Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo (1899 - 1903) 

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Displaying using natural lighting, ca (1903 - 1950) 

Credit: Memory of Modern Egypt. 

Image source: 

Displaying using artificial lighting. 2010 
Image source: 


20th Century Museums & Byeond 

After 1900 artistic innovation in Europe and the US increased in a rapid succession of 


The modern movement lasted through the first half of the 20 th Century. 

Modernism rejects old, traditional ideas and styles in art and design Although Modernist 

styles are diverse, art moved toward abstraction based on line, color, shape, space, and texture 

Modern architecture and design moved toward abstraction and rejected historical styles and 

ornamentation Modern architecture reveals rather than conceals the inner structure of the 


Art Nouveau 

Art Nouveau began in France (Late 19 th Century - Early 20 th Century) Art Nouveau 
incorporates Organic and Natural Forms into the decoration Architecture +Interior Design, 
Fashion, Graphic Arts, Decorative Arts. 

Art Deco 

Movement in 1920's and 1930's associated with "the Jazz Age" Began in France , but spread 
to other parts of Europe, USA, and around the world People still wanted decoration despite 
the de Stijl and other modern movements eliminating all unnecessary decoration Industrial 
Design Combined with Fine Art Elements (industrial materials (metal) and objects + patterns 
and repeated shapes) Industrial Design - cars, household appliances, fashion, decorative 
objects, architecture Inspiration from Ancient Cultures, including Egypt. 

De Stijl (The Style) 

Began in 1917 by a group of artists in Holland " balance between individual and universal 
values" Integration of Art and Life Geometric Forms / "Purity" and Simplicity 

Prairie Style 

American Midwest Architect Frank Lloyd Wright invented the Prairie Style in early 20 th 
Century Related to The Arts and Crafts Movement , using craft, including stained glass 
windows, ceramics, and wood carpentry Wright preferred the countryside to the city Natural 
Materials / Natural Environment Inspired by Japanese Architecture (long, low buildings with 
open interior spaces). Wright designed a hotel in Tokyo (now demolished) 


The Bauhaus was an important art and design school in Germany opened in the 1920's 
The Bauhaus focused on understanding Pure Form (color, shape, line, composition, space, 
etc,) Many important artists and designers taught and studied there The Bauhaus trained 
artists, designers, and architects to accept and anticipate the needs of the 20 th Century 
The Bauhaus greatly influenced modern design - "streamlined" the look of architecture and 


design, including typography The Bauhaus was closed by the Nazis in 1933 

The Bauhaus Bauhaus designers invented new simplified forms of typography (sans serif) 

The Bauhaus designers created "streamlined" design with simple, "clean lines" 

Mid-Century Modern 

Late 1940's, 1950's, into the Early 1960's 

-Organic Forms vs. Geometric Forms 

-Fusion of Architecture and Sculpture 


-New Industrial Materials 

Post-Modern Architecture 

The Past 20 - 30 Years 

Belief that Early Modernist Architecture was impersonal and sterile 

Complex and Eclectic structures 

Post-Modern architecture accepts and embraces the "messy and chaotic" nature of 
urban life 

References to architecture from the past 


Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, USA (1943-1959) 

Frank Lloyd Wright 

G V G & E N H E I M 

M U S E U M 


Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1943-1959) 

Swelling out towards the city of Manhattan, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum was the 
last major project designed and built by Frank Lloyd Wright between 1943 until it opened to 
the public in 1959, six months after his death, making it one of his longest works in creation 
along with one of his most popular projects. Completely contrasting the strict Manhattan 
city grid, the organic curves of the museum are a familiar landmark for both art lovers, 
visitors, and pedestrians alike. 

Aerial view of Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum with Central Park. Photo: David Heald 

The exterior of the Guggenheim Museum is a stacked white cylinder of reinfored concrete 
swirling towards the sky. The museum's dramatic curves of the exterior, however, had an 
even more stunning effect on the interior. Inside Wright proposed u one great space on a 
continuous floor," and his concept was a success. 


Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1943-1959) 


Walking inside, a visitor's first intake is a huge atrium, rising 92 in height to an expansive 
glass dome.Along the sides of this atrium is a continuous ramp uncoiling upwards six 
stories for more thanone-quarter of a mile, allowing for one floor to flow into another. The 
ramp also creates a procession in which a visitor experiences the displayed along the walls 
as they climb upwards towards the sky . 



Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1943-1959) 

Top Lighting 


Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1943-1959) 

artifical lighting 

artifical lighting 

Using neutral colors so as not to over whelm the exhibits 




Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1943-1959) 

The design of the museum as one continuous floor with the levels of ramps overlooking the 
open atrium also allowed for the interaction of people on different levels, enhancing the 
design in section. 


Wright whisked people to the top of the building via elevator, and led them downward at a 
leisurely pace on the gentle slope of a continuous ramp. 



Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1943-1959) 

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum floor plan. 

Vasily Kandinsky.Composition 8 (Komposition 8), July 1923. Oil on canvas, 140 x 201 

cm. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Founding 

Collection, By gift 37.262. © 2009 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris 


Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1943-1959) 

Plan, ground floor 

Ground floor plan 

First floor plan 

The curved walls of the interior were intended 
so that paintings had to be tilted backward, 
"as on the artist's easel " This was unsuccessful 
because the paintings were still very difficult to 
display because of the concavity of the walls, 
and because of this before its opening 21 artists 
signed a letter protesting about their display of 
work in such a space . 

Entrance Lobby 
Green area 

] Circulation 
] Stairs 
] Service 

October, 1959. Photo: Robert Mates 


Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1943-1959) 

a problem which Museum Director James Johnson Sweeney took seriously, stating, "This is 
the most spectacular museum interior architecturally in this country" 

October, 1959. Photo: Robert Mates 

Between 2005-2008 the Guggenheim Museum went under an exterior renovation where 
eleven coats of paint were removed from the original surface and revealed many cracks due 
to climatic reasons.This revelation led to extensive research in the testing of potential repair 
materials, as well as the restoration of the exterior. 


Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1943-1959) 

Material of Exterior: Concrete , Glass and steel. 

the glass dome 

Wright also had a problem with Manhattan's building-code administrators who argued 
with him over structural issues, such as the glass dome that had to be reduced in size and 
redesigned to include concrete ribs that are extensions of the discreet structural pillars on 
the exterior walls 


Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1943-1959) 


presents a new reading of the impact of photography of the past fifty years. Much of the 
work has been created in the 21st century and incorporates technologies of recording— still 
and moving images, audio, and performance— that suggest a reinterpretation of postwar 
art in which the events of the past are recognized as inhabiting even the most forward- 
looking ideas. 


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Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1943-1959) 



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Frank Lloyd Wright, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1943-59.Perspective, "The Reception," 

Graphite pencil and colored pencil on paper, 29 l/8 x 38 3/4 inches.The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation FLLW 

FDN # 4305.092. © 2009 The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation, Scottsdale, Arizona 

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Kimbell Art Museum, Texas, USA (1969-1972) 



Art Museum 

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The Site Plan 

Location : fort worth , Texas 


Proposed Renzo 
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C Louis Kahn 


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Multimillionaire Kay Kimbell wanted to create a public place appropriate for his art collection, 

primarily consisting of paintings of the seventeenth and eighteenth century 

Opening its doors to the public in 1972 marked a new milestone in the work of Louis I. Kahn 

and introduced a new institution with a considerable presence in Texas and in the art world 

in general. 

"The space of a building must be able to read a line of lighted spaces. Each space should 

be defined by its structure and the nature of its natural lighting. Even a space designed to 

remain in the dark should be light enough, from any mysterious opening, which shows us 

how dark it is in reality "(Louis Kahn) 

The Kimbell Art Museum is Kahn's final work which he saw the completion of. 

Since its inauguration, the Kimbell Art Museum has gained recognition, for the most part by 

the notoriety of the building, modern classic, the American architect Louis I. Kahn. 


Kay Kimbell and his wife, who gave name to the museum, established a foundation to build 

an art museum to house his growing collection. The board of directors of the Kimbell Art 

Foundation, created in 1936, hired Richard B. Brown as director of the museum in 1965 for 

the realization of the vision and program design of the institution, as well as to increase its 

collection. Brown chose Kahn for the job, but demanded by contract to work with the local 

study Preston Geren M & Associates. 

As with many institutions that built its first building, the program took into account the 


Kimbell Art Museum, Texas, USA (1969-1972) 

future objectives of the museum, assigning a large space to the growing collection of art, 

thus giving visibility to the institution and become one of the main attractions of the city. 

Kahn, who is never satisfied with easy solutions, took three years to produce four design 

proposals for the museum. The common element in all of its proposals was the use of decks 

/ cycloid horizontal roofs. 


Located in the middle of a park, the site of 3.8 hectares keystone of the museum is located 

next to other prominent museums, notably the Amon Carter Museum, designed by Philip 

Johnson and opened in 1961. 

Its address is 3333 Camp Bowie Boulevard in the heart of the cultural district of Fort Worth, 

Texas, USA. 


As in most of its buildings Kahn managed to develop features that contextualize and give 
a unique personality to the project. A good example of this are those covered roofs, which 
make a fine partnership between the structure and what was once the rural setting of Fort 

In particular, far away in another time and visible from the site, there was a grain silo, then 
demolished. Ideologically, we can see and understand better than the overall shape of a grain 
silo, which consists of a series of vaulted forms separated by a flat surface, which has been 
conceptually deprived of their vertical and horizontal has been prepared in the landscape 
can into the structure of the configuration of the roof-deck. 

These forms cycloid, and are willing vertically or horizontally, are precisely the elements 
that characterize and contextualize the Kimbell Art Museum in the Texan landscape to 
which it belongs. 


Kimbell Art Museum, Texas, USA (1969-1972) 

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Union of bending to allow the passage of 
natural light 

The masterful use of natural light in the Kimbell Art Museum was based on collaboration 
between Louis Kahn and Richard Kelly. Kahn who designed a series of galleries oriented 
north to south with vaulted ceilings, which have a central slit of light. Kelly designed the 
system of directional light through a sheet of aluminum dome. 

Through the drill penetrates the daylight, in order to soften the contrast between the 
reflector and the cement vaulting. It was left without perforating the central part of the 
aluminum foil, to block the direct daylight. In areas that did not require protection against 
ultraviolet radiation, such as the lobby or the restaurant, used a reflector fully perforated. 
To calculate the contour of the reflector and the properties of light were used and predictable 
software. At the bottom of the steering system of daylight were integrated electrified rails 
and projectors. 

For patios, Kelly proposed plants in order to soften the light they project to the interior 


Kimbell Art Museum, Texas, USA (1969-1972) 


The construction of the most famous American architect Louis Kahn was the Kimbell Art 
Museum, consisting of six parallel and great vaults of concrete, like the ceiling, with lights 
on the ceiling all along its length to create intimate spaces and monumental at the same 
time, contemporary in its nakedness and intemporal in their references to classical Roman 



The design of the Kimbell Museum of Fine Arts, built between 1967 and 1972, offers its 
linearity in the will of contact with the exterior: the natural light and its treatment are 
the essential argument of the building, which is experiencing Kahn reflex zenith on curved 




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Kimbell Art Museum, Texas, USA (1969-1972) 

Ground Plan. 

First floor Plan. 

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Kimball Section 

Kimball North Elevation 

Kimball West Elevation 


Kimbell Art Museum, Texas, USA (1969-1972) 


In addition to the galleries for exhibitions, installations include the museum's library, an 

auditorium with capacity for 180 spectators, an art library, a laboratory for conservation of 

works of art and a restaurant. 

The spaces of the galleries do not delineates each individual vault shape but is flowing from 

one to another as a result of the liberation of space achieved with the removal of walls. 

Although the creation of a space within, through the light, is achieved by the particularity of 

the roof to beam the light. This peculiarity has become the most popular of Kahn, distributors 

of natural light through a small slot into the sky and along the concrete vault. 

Inside the galleries the architect included three yards, created from the vaults of the court 

in certain locations, which bring light and a piece of the outside world to the most "interior" 

of the galleries. 

The museum is surrounded by a forest and a pond that add a suitable environment to the 

whole ambience of the place. 


Kimbell Art Museum, Texas, USA (1969-1972) 


A simple composition of concrete vaults parallel, is revealed to the visitor before stepping 
inside the building, with porches, which seem to be an unnecessary continuation of the 

The porches unnecessary, according to Kahn's own words, define the vocabulary of the 
entire structural museum: basically a beam of concrete 2.54 xO, 58 meters, horizontal and 
supported on four square columns, which rely on the decks in the form of cycloidal vaults 
that meet the mission-covered roofs, and whose structure is used, as in most of the buildings 
Kahn, in order to create an abstract order, a genesis for the creation of more complex. 
The space resulting from the union between the curvature of the roof and wall form a crossbar, 
which allows oblique rays of light in the rooms. These rhythmic forms of roof, which can 
be seen in two of the four facades of the building, provide a vivid visual impression when 
climbing the ramp that leads staggered to the main entrance of the museum. 


The symmetry of design is enhanced by the use of natural materials like travertine and white 

oak, combined with glass, concrete, stainless steel and aluminum. 

The narrow skylights that are along the vaults are on the inside of aluminum reflectors, 

while the galleries provide a diffuse natural light 

To express the differences and the inherent qualities of materials, the arc of the roof-deck 

concrete is separated radially from the curve of the adjacent wall covered with travertine. 


Kimbell Art Museum, Texas, USA (1969-1972) 

Entrance View. 

West Elevation. 


San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California, USA (1992-1995) 


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Architect: Mario Botta 
Structure: steel frame, brick cladding 

The building is the second-largest single structure in the United States devoted to modern 
art (after New York's Museum of Modern Art). It replaces the museum's former location 
at the War Memorial Veterans Building in San Francisco's Civic Center, its home since its 
founding in 1935 


San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California, USA (1992-1995) 


It is located across from the Yerba Buena Gardens and Art Center and, from this view; the 
building's presence in the urban neighborhood can be appreciated. 


K ill ■ \j 

ifte plan 


San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California, USA (1992-1995) 


Botta descriped his building saying: 

"A space designed to witnessing and searching for a new religiosity" 

The architect uses building technology as a symbol of protection and preservation, 
information and clarity, and contemplation and enjoyment for a large urban community 

Botta was influenced by classical architecture from the Italian Renaissance when designing 
the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. His work however is a kind of post-modern 
classicism that rejects the classical Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders. Instead, he explores 
the layering of color, form, texture, and material found in examples such as the fagade of 
Santa Maria Novella by Renaissance architect Leon Battista Alberti. Botta's exploration of 
Renaissance technology in the use of geometric form and articulation of horizontal details 
is exemplified in the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; here it is accepted 



San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California, USA (1992-1995) 


The first-floor gallery (16-ft ceilings) Houses selections from the permanent collection 

Provides spaces for the architecture and design program. 

A second-floor gallery with artificial light and 12-ft ceilings, exhibiting photographs and 

works on paper. 

The top two gallery floors (18-ft and 23.5-ft ceilings) are for Special and temporary exhibitions 

Large-scale contemporary art from the permanent collection Multiple-use event space. 

On the fourth floor rear, a state-of-the-art facility for art conservation. 

On floors 2 through 4 in the rear, administrative and curatorial offices 

Ground floor. 

1 Atrium'lobby 

2 Auditorium 

3 Event space 

5 Bookstore 

6 C 1ms room 

7 Loading dock 

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1 Atrium 

2 Pa mting ands culpture, 
design galleries 

3 Offices 


San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California, USA (1992-1995) 

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Sccmd floor. 

1 Atrium 

2 Photography and temporary 
exhibition galleries 

3 Offices 



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Third floor. 

1 Atrhm 

2 Temporary 
exhibition galleries 

3 Contemporary 

an galteries 

4 Video/meaia oris 

5 Cmtttrvtekm fab 

6 Offices 




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Fourth floor 

1 Af rfurti 

2 Temporary 
exhibitor} galleries 


San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California, USA (1992-1995) 

Lighting/Natural Lighting 

The sky lit tower serves as a visual and symbolic transition from the massive exterior to the 
225,000 square foot interior. It supplies the central atrium court and surrounding galleries 
with an abundance of natural light. 

Botta's use of natural light has a temporal quality: it is a light of change, mood, 
observation, and contemplation that signifies the museum's intent. 

Ceiling systems light condensers combine artificial and natural light for the two top floors of 
temporary exhibition galleries. These systems eliminate the destructive ultraviolet portions 
of the spectrum and control foot-candle levels. 

Section through fifth floor exhibition galleries. Note skylight providing controlled natural light 


San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California, USA (1992-1995) 

Section showing natural lighting techniques 

Artificial Lighting 

The artificial light used throughout the galleries as it is required to be' s also used for 
the interior design. 


San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California, USA (1992-1995) 

Building Design 

Architect Mario Botta says: "The situation of the museum building on a plot surrounded by 
a three high-rise blocks encouraged the adoption of a particularly powerful image, while at 
the same time avoiding and direct-and inevitably disadvantageous - comparison with its 
surroundings. The scheme was carried out with three declared objectives. 

- Natural lighting, in spite of the unfavourable one-to-four relationship between the area 
of the site and total built surface called for by the programme. 

- The creation of a unitary interior image. 

- The construction of an external skin which, the opposite of a shell, effectively leaves the 
building faceless, thus stimulating visitors to enter. 


Botta had to make the building "fit in" to a specific city; he however does not imitate the 
expanse of surrounding skyscrapers. Botta uses clarity and thought to continue in the distinct 
geometric language for which he is famous in his preceding works. Conceived in a modernist 
tradition of material technology, his language is minimal yet bold in form with richly textured 
brickwork. His vocabulary includes the circle, that marks the building's importance in the 
urban setting. The building is composed of wide oblong steps that emphasize volume. The 
bold stripes of gray and black granite, so significant in the tower, are repeated at the entrance 
columns and sides of the buildings 


San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California, USA (1992-1995) 


The interior of the atrium repeats the exterior 
vertical striping; the stripes seem to float 
as they are repeated on the floor and, then, 
connect with a sea of light maple partitions 
and dado that signify entry into the galleries. 
This floating experience supports the 
reflective thought of the visitor and compels 
one to move from gallery to gallery 

l^ 0*1*1 Pv* l 

And as one enters the interior atrium, a 
human familiarity is revealed that is at first 
uplifting and, then, joyful, as one looks up to 
see engaged visitors walking across a cat walk 
that spans the atrium leading to an elevator 
shaft. The profusion of light and shadow 
from the circular skylight is juxtaposed 
to the square geometry of the five storied 
central staircase— it is exhilarating. 

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San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California, USA (1992-1995) 

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San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California, USA (1992-1995) 

Materials and colors 

The stepped facade to the fore, finished with brick, accommodates the series of exhibition 


The cylindrical volume clad with The bold stripes of gray and black granite. 

The interior design is marked by alternating 
bands of polished and flame-finished black 
granite on the floor, ground-level walls, stair 
and column bases; and bands of natural and 
black-stained wood on the reception desks and 
coat-check desk 



Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain (1993-1997) 


Architect: Frank Gehry 
Building Type: Museum of 
Contemporary Art 
Architectural style: modern 
Name of School: Deconstraction 
Location: City Center Bilbao 
Alaspainhallowaqah in the Basque 
Country in Spain next to Ponte di 
Street Asilva 

Client: company Ferrovial [3] Spanish 
An area of 32,000 square meters 
Opened in 1997 

The concept of this museum is the Famous flamenco dance in Spain and the flower in there 
clothe That Spain is famous for producing metal Titanium what remains in the mind is the 
organizing metaphor - the robust flower with its riotous petals blowing in the wind. There are 
something like twenty-six self-similar petals, which reach out and come to a point extended 
as a line. Just as a Doric column sculpts light and shadow with its flutes, so these petals are 
pinched to create a shadow line. 

The arris or fillet defines each volume in a much more subtle way than at Vitra; perhaps this 
is a visual refinement, but it is also a clear example of the way in which Gehry learns step 
by step from his own work. The new complexity paradigm in architecture is simultaneously 
evolving in different directions 

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Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao (1993-1997) 

Eliinbar sketches 2011. Frank Gehry's Guggenheim museum in Bilbao, floor plan Strategy 


The 301,000-sq-ft Guggenheim Museum Bilbao creates a dramatic and highly visible landmark 
for Bilbao. It stands on an irregularly shaped site that marks the center of a cultural triangle 
formed by the Museo de Belles Artes, the Universidad de Deusto, and the Old Town Hall. 

Gehry has related the museum to three city scales: that of the bridge, captured by his tower; 
that of the existing rooftops, whose heights are acknowledged by the atrium and lower forms; 
and the Bilbao River, an important historical waterway, which is taken into the scheme, both 
literally through the large windows and metaphorically through the viscous, silvery forms. 


Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao (1993-1997) 

Lighting / natural lighting 

Natural light enters galleries through skylights with adjustable blinds whose spectrum 
controlled glass limits the penetration of ultraviolet light 

East elevation. 

Artifical lighting 

Galleries are artificially illuminated by a lighting system mounted on exposed catwalks 
suspended from the ceiling. 



Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao (1993-1997) 

Colors is in contrast and worm in show but there is contrast with The metal While the Bilbao 
museum has a diversity of form and color. 




* - 







The museum is composed of interconnected building blocks, clad in limestone, which house 
exhibition spaces and public facilities. 


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First floor plan 


Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao (1993-1997) 


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Fourth floor plan 


Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao (1993-1997) 

East elevation. 

West elevation, 

South elevation 

North elevation. 



Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao (1993-1997) 


The central feature of Gehry's design is a 165-ft-high atrium, more than one and a half times 
the height of the rotunda of Frank Lloyd Wright's building in New York. Flooded with light 
from glazed openings in the roof, the atrium is served by two glass enclosed elevators and 
curvilinear pedestrian catwalks that connect with two stairways, providing views of the 
river and the city and hills beyond. 

To connect the city to the museum, Gehry has created an atrium space more powerful 
than any other, even New York's original Guggenheim, which also has a large expanding 
space at its center (see pi57 for an early view of Gehry's model). The Bilbao atrium does not 
have a function beyond orientation and thus it could be conceived as both a pure aesthetic 
space and public town square, opening out to the river. Aware that this relative freedom 
allowed him to upstage Wright at his own game of spatial gymnastics, Gehry said he intends 
to have a holographic portrait of that wilful architect looking down on visitors, jealously, 
disapprovingly. Formally, the new atrium takes the exterior grammar and turns it inside out, 
so that the petal shapes compress inwards, and bend upwards with curved glass. The result 
is a new kind of ambiguous architecture, more folded onto itself than the glass box which 
introduced Modernist notions of transparency. Views are partly veiled by walls of light that 
lead the eye up to the public ramps and roof terraces, which in turn give onto the urban 
landscape and river - making the museum a celebrant of the city. 

Section AA. 

1 Atrium ^m 

2 Goiter? 

3 Kitchen 
A Storage 


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Three levels of galleries are organized around the central atrium. Included are those designed 
for the presentation of large-scale works of art and site-specific installations that could not 
be mounted in more conventional museums. 


Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao (1993-1997) 




Individual building components are unified into a single architectural composition by 
the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao's signature roof, a composition of twisting, curving, 
and jutting forms made of titaniuma metal rarely used in construction, but suited to the 
saltwater marine environment of Bilbao. 



MAXXI Museum, Rome, Italy (1999-2009) 

Photos Credit: Iwan Baan 

The museum participates actively to the location - Rome, and its first outskirt, not a part 
of the old centre, but still central. 

The Flaminio neighborhood has been interested in the last years by a renovation program 
of public attraction, the latest being the Auditorium by Renzo Piano. The long MAXXI 
construction process completes the idea of a renewed city. Moreover, MAXXI is the first 
national museum of contemporary art in Italy. 

It will bring a lot of attentions, by public and media, together with economical activities, 
rendering this museum a central point for Rome, which is in constant look for its 
contemporary identity. 


MAXXI Museum, Rome, Italy (1999-2009) 

the museum is 'not a object-container, but rather a campus for art', where flows and 
pathways overlap and connect in order to create a dynamic and interactive space. Although 
the program is clear and organized in plan, flexibility of use is the main goal of the project. 

Continuity of spaces makes it a suitable place for any kind of moving and temporary exhibition 

ZahaHadid intended 'a new fluid kind of spatiality of multiple perspective points and 
fragmented geometry designed to embody the chaotic fluidity of modern life 1 


Particular attention has been given to the natural lighting, by the thin concrete beams 
on the ceiling, together with glass covering and filtering systems. The same beams have a 
bottom rail from which art pieces are going to be suspended. The beams, the staircases and 
the linear lighting system guide the visitors through the interior walkway, which ends in the 
large space on third level. From here, a large window offers a view back to the city, though 
obstructed by a massive core. 


MAXXI Museum, Rome, Italy (1999-2009) 


In the context of the broad project for preserving works of art inside a museum, It is essential 
to consider the problems of protection from sunlight, in order to counter the occurrence of 
changes in colour caused by the aggressive action of UV and IR rays that pass through the 
windows of the exhibition halls. 

This was achieved thanks to a special sun-screening film for outside use of the latest 
generation, applied to the windows. The film in question is Madico SG330EXSR, which is 75 
microns thick had consists of a special double long-lasting and scratchproof film. It enabled 
99% of the UV light to be kept out and over 70% of the incident energy to be reflected, 
ensuring a solar factor lower than G = 0.20. 

Unlike other typologies on the market, the solution adopted eliminates the undesired "mirror" 
effect, thus enabling two-directional visibility as requested by the technical management of 
the MAXXI Museum. This enhances the osmotic relationship between indoors and outdoors, 
between the works of art and the visitors. The effectiveness of the "glass + film" package is 
guaranteed by the high level of efficiency provided by the system 

■ ■ 



MAXXI Museum, Rome, Italy (1999-2009) 


On the second and third floors, the tunnels have a "lid" of glass and steel ribs. The 
"tunnels" house a series of galleries, which can be reconfigured by the curators 


The vertical &horizontal element circulations are with contrast color 

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MAXXI Museum, Rome, Italy (1999-2009) 


Continuity of spaces makes it a suitable place for any kind of moving and temporary 
exhibition, without redundant wall divisions or. Entering the atrium, the main elements of 
the project are evident 


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MAXXI Museum, Rome, Italy (1999-2009) 







MAXXI Museum, Rome, Italy (1999-2009) 


Overhanging the facade is a box, a gallery on the upper storey that brings to mind playful 
Surrealist biomorphism in how this structure seems to flop over the wall below and look 1 
outward, mask-like. Once inside, you enter another world, structured around the fluidity 
of sculptured space, curvilinear shapes defying Cartesian coordinates and geometrical 
symmetry Instead, slim black staircases swoop down seemingly with no support, breaking 
into the hues of whites and greys on walls and floor. You get the sense of being in multiple 
buildings, never the feeling of being in a fixed space, in a boxy room defined by sharp verticals 
and horizontals. 


theMaxxi is a light grey concrete construction which does not offend the Pompeian reds, 
desaturated yellows and terracottas that surround it. What is so striking from the outside is 
not the new building's ghosted colour, but its sinuous design that rejects both the earnest 
engineering look of much British architecture, for example, Stirling's, and the many 
postmodern parodies of recent memory, showing how here, as in all her work, ZahaHadid 
has opted for a celebration of contour, of the craft itself, and 
for extending technical possibilities. 


MAXXI Museum, Rome, Italy (1999-2009) 


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"When I went back to Rome I discovered that it was designed by Iraqi 
architect ZahaHadid, who won the important RIBA Stirling Prize for 
architecture. Actually, the judges decided that the MAXXI Museum 
(Museum of 21st Century Arts) is her best work" 

David Brancaleone 


Royal Ontario Museum, Ontario, Canada (2004-2007) 




Royal Ontario Museum, Ontario, Canada (2004-2007) 


the michael lee-chin crystal derives its name from the building's five intersecting volumes, 
which are reminiscent of crystals, the intersection of two of the crystals, each of which is 
dedicated to new galleries, creates a void, known as the spirit house, essentially a large 
atrium rising from below ground level to the fourth floor, and containing a number of 
criss-crossing bridges at various levels, the spirit house is intended to be a place for visitors 
to reflect upon the exhibitions they have experienced in one of the gallery spaces before 
moving on to the next. 

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Royal Ontario Museum, Ontario, Canada (2004-2007) 


the royal Ontario museum project set out to renovate ten new galleries in the existing 
historical building and creating an extension to the museum, now called the michael lee- 
chin crystal, this new extension provides innovative new architecture and the creation of 
a grand public attraction with 100,000 sq. ft. of new exhibition space, situated at one of the 
most prominent intersections in downtown toronto, the museum has become a dynamic 
center for the city 

LIGHTING/natural lighting 

naturally daylight exhibition spaces are 
having a renaissance, leaving behind the 
black-box track-and spotlight technique that 
until recently dominated us institutions, 
with daylight's dynamic ever-changing 
nature and better color rendering than 
artificial light - plus the environmental 
bonus of energy efficiency the benefits are 
clear on this project, with the geometries 
set by the architect, fundamental changes 
were rarely made, and arguably amp's input 
might initially seem more peripheral 


Royal Ontario Museum, Ontario, Canada (2004-2007) 


Royal Ontario Museum, Ontario, Canada (2004-2007) 

Artificial lighting 

on this project used mounted spots. 


Consisting of five interlocking and self-supporting crystalline shapes, 25% of the exterior 
is glass75% aluminum (there are 52 windows), while the rest is three layers of aluminum 
cladding, giving it a brushed metal, corrugated appearance. 

The Crystal's canted walls do not touch the sides of the existing heritage buildings, used to 
close the envelope between the new form and existing walls 


Royal Ontario Museum, Ontario, Canada (2004-2007) 


The vertical &horizontal element circulation are with deferent color 


vertical and horizontal circulation: 

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Vertical circulation 

Horizontal circulation 


Royal Ontario Museum, Ontario, Canada (2004-2007) 


The Michael Lee-Chin Crystal derives its name from the building's five intersecting volumes, 
which are reminiscent of crystals, when dramatic spaces such as those created by Libeskind 
have to perform a practical role for exhibitions. 

The intersection of two of the crystals, each of which is dedicated to new galleries, creates 
a void, known as the Spirit House. Essentially a large atrium rising from below ground level 
to the fourth floor, and containing a number of crises-crossing bridges at various levels, the 
exhibitions they have experienced in one of the gallery spaces before moving on to the next. 
A fourth crystal, known as the Stair of Wonders, is dedicated to vertical circulation. A fifth 
crystal houses the major new restaurant 



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Royal Ontario Museum, Ontario, Canada (2004-2007) 


Vertical circulation 


Display In corners in this modern structure. 




display in exhibition 


Sogn & Fjordane Art Museum, Forde, Norway (2011-2012) 

Credit: C.F. Moller Architects 


C.F. Moller Architects were also 
responsible for the design of the SEIF 
office building which is the museum's 
closest neighbour, and for a residential 
complex on the same site which is 
presently under construction. 



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he small Norwegian town of Forde draws its qualities from its interaction with the surrounding 
mountains, which are visible everywhere, and from Jostedalsbreen, the largest glacier on 
the European mainland, which lies in close proximity to the town. 

The town's new museum, Sogn&FjordaneKunstmuseum also draws upon the distinctive 
landscape for its architectural expression: the museum lies like a crystal-clear block of ice 
that has slid down from the surrounding mountains 


Sogn & Fjordane Art Museum, Forde, Norway (2011-2012) 

Lighting/Natural lighting 

Lighting side of natural sunlight coming from the windows 


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Sogn & Fjordane Art Museum, Forde, Norway (2011-2012) 

outdoor artificial lighting 

artificial lighting is used to preserve the paintings with a good quantity of lighting is 
calculated to suite the exhibitions visitors. 


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Sogn & Fjordane Art Museum, Forde, Norway (2011-2012) 

Level spaces, circulation 

The crystalline form provides an 
asymmetrical plan solution, with 
varying displacements in the 

Inside, visitors move upwards 
through the museum's four 
floors of exhibition space, and 
at the top a panoramic view of 
the mountains can be enjoyed 
from a roof terrace that can also 
function as an exhibition space 
or stage. 


First floor 


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Sogn & Fjordane Art Museum, Forde, Norway (2011-2012) 

Exterior walls 

From reflection glasses, The facade is clad in white glass with a network of angled lines, 
reminiscent of the fracture lines in ice. This network also defines the irregular window 
apertures. In the evening these lines are illuminated, so that the museum lies like a sparkling 
block in the middle of the town's darkness. 


Kimbell Art Museum Expansion, Texas, USA (2007-scheduied 2013) 

The KimbellArt Museum expansion 

Designed by Renzo Pian 
Style: a high-tech building 

The Kimbell Art Museum unveiled plans Tuesday for the museum's expansion project, 
designed by Renzo Piano. The Kimbell is expanding its space because, well, it needs more 
of it. The museum currently does not have enough space to display both a major exhibition 
and their complete permanent collection. The museum also lacks space for educational 
purposes (and when I say "lacks space" I mean they have no space at all). The new building 
will almost double the museum's square footage, which will allow more gallery space and 
provide educational facilities. 
The Location 

The team considered many possibilities as far as where to put the new building. They have 
decided to put it on the green opposite the front of the Kimbell (not to be confused with the 
back of the Kimbell, which is where one usually enters the building after parking). While 
they considered placing the new facility on the East side of the building (where the above 
ground parking is at on Darnell Street), working around Arch Adams Street while keeping 
the buildings connected in some way presented difficulties. Also as Piano says, it's better to 
have the buildings "talking in a better way." Piano has a vision of bringing the public back 
to the front of Louis I. Kahn's masterpiece with an underground garage that will ascend 
to the front of the Kimbell, in between the two buildings. The buildings will be connected 
by an underground "umbilical cord" (as Piano called it), however that will mostly be for 
employees and artwork. The public will go back and forth above ground, amongst the trees 
and the green that they will preserve throughout the process. 


Kimbell Art Museum Expansion, Texas, USA (2007-scheduled 2013) 




Art Muicum 


The team considered many possibilities as far as where to put 
the new building. They have decided to put it on the green 
opposite the front of the Kimbell {not to be contused with the 
back of the Kimbell, which is where one usually enters the 
building after parking). 

The Kimbell Art Museum expansion 


The Design 

The building will be approximately 90,000 sq. ft, although with much of the building 

underground the facility will only take up about 50,000 sq. ft. of the green. One of Piano's 

concerns with the construction of the new building is its sustainability. Not only will part 

of the building be incorporated into the side of the earth (think earth home), but they are 

considering implementing the use of solar panels in their efforts to reduce energy use. The 

goal: to be "energy neutral." (Don't worry, Piano assured us that the new building will not 

lack air conditioning like his last project, the California Academy of Sciences rebuilding in 

San Francisco.) Another concern is to preserve the integrity of Kahn's original building. To 

achieve this, Piano plans on subtly mirroring the proportions of the original building and 

using similar (yet "greener") materials. 

"This museum is living proof of humbleness," Piano said of Kahn's work. "It's 

unpretentious, it's about scale." Piano went on to say, "This is a masterpiece. The 

proportion of this building is perfect, you should not try to add, you should not try to 


The building will house gallery space, classrooms and labs, a library, an auditorium and an 

underground parking garage. 


Kimbell Art Museum Expansion, Texas, USA (2007-scheduled 2013) 


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Kimbell Art Museum Expansion, Texas, USA (2007-scheduled 2013) 

last figure and below are renderings of Renzo Piano's fortcoming expansion of the Kimbell 
Art Museum in the Cultural District. Piano's new building will sit across from the Kimbell's 
main entrance, on a portion of the current "Great Lawn ." It will be of similar size and scale to 
the original Louis Kahn building, and defers to its predecessor in many ways - for example, 
Piano is attempting to correct the way people enter the complex, by orienting an entrance 
from a new underground garage to direct people into the space between the two buildings, 
facing the original Kimbell's main entrance (most people seem to throw their car in one 
of the eastern lots and scurry in via the below-grade back door rather than making their 
entrance through Kahn's beautiful main entrance on the west side). 



[R] top: Renzo Piano, Building section 

including the Kahn building, 2008 

© Renzo Piano Building Workshop | 

bottom: Louis I. Kahn's schematic section 

of galleries and courtyard of the Kimbell 

Art Museum, photograph © Louis I. Kahn 

Collection, University of Pennsylvania 

and Pennsylvania Historical and Museum 

Commission, Philadelphia 


Kimbell Art Museum Expansion, Texas, USA (2007-scheduled 2013) 

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Renzo Piano, Gallery sketch, 2008 | image © Renzo Piano Building Workshop 


Kimbell Art Museum Expansion, Texas, USA (2007-scheduled 2013) 

Louis I. Kahn standing against the north wall of the Kimbell Art Museum auditorium before turning it over to its 

owner, the Kimbell Art Foundation, August 3, 1972 




Museums in the twentieth century 

There were many factors influenced the development of galleries and museums in the 

twentieth century: 

-Museums and galleries affected the emergence and development of the intellectual and 
artistic movements and modern architecture. 

-Economic and social crisis that emerged after the First World War. 

-Modern industrial outlook is what was done by School Simplicity and direction of abstract 
geometric shapes as a reflection of the heavy ornaments in the nineteenth century. 

-Vacuum resulting from the study materials and new construction methods. 

-Scientific trends resulting from the great scientific progress and the most important 
invention of the computer. 

-This is just a show and sequence for the onset and development of museums throughout 
the ages different. 




- Fletcher, Banister. A History of Architecture 

- Newhouse, Victoria. Towards a New Museum 

- Alden's Oxford Guide. Oxford: Alden & Company 

- Physick, John (1982). The Victoria and Albert Museum: The History of its Building . 

- Bridget Cherry & Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England London 3: The North West , 

- Harold Sellers Colton - the popular science monthly . September, 1909, Peale's Museum P.221 

- Mary Ellen Hayward, Frank R. Shivers, Jr. T he Architecture of Baltimore: An Illustrated 


Museums official websites 


http ://archi ve . org/ 

http ://lif e .time .com/ 


Other Websites